Here’s a good article I came across on Simpson’s Paradox, with a concrete example involving researchers who concluded that despite claims that women were discriminated against during the admissions process, that there was actually an admission bias in FAVOR of women at UC-Berkeley. How can you be so off? The overall stats for admissions showed that a higher percentage of men were admitted, but if you break down by department, women generally had higher acceptance rates than men in the top departments. In this example, this is caused by the fact that women tended to apply to more selective programs than men, who mainly applied to more specialized science-related programs that have higher acceptance rates. I especially liked the interactive tables which make the concept more accessible to non-math people, which is important since it’s a dangerous fallacy in research (e.g. omission of variables that can make a big difference). Play around with it.